Eritrea’s government is extraordinarily repressive, subjecting its population to widespread forced labor and conscription, imposing restrictions on freedom of expression, opinion, and faith, and restricting independent scrutiny by international monitors. As a one-man dictatorship under President Isaias Afewerki, Eritrea has no legislature, no independent civil society organizations or media outlets, and no independent judiciary. Elections have never been held in the country since it gained independence in 1993, and the government has never implemented the 1997 constitution guaranteeing civil rights and limiting executive power. Since signing the peace deal with Ethiopia in 2018, the government has increased its regional and international diplomatic engagement but has not taken steps to improve the plight of Eritreans.

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