In 2021, Prime Minister Imran Khan’s government intensified its crackdown on critical voices from the media, civil society, nongovernmental organizations, and the political opposition. The authorities routinely use draconian counterterrorism and sedition laws to intimidate peaceful critics. Blasphemy-related violence against religious minorities, fostered in part by government persecution and discriminatory laws, has increased. Law enforcement agencies carry out arbitrary detentions and extrajudicial killings with impunity. The authorities have failed to establish adequate protection or accountability for abuses against women and girls, including so-called “honor killings” and forced marriage.

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