Spain was hit hard by the Covid-19 pandemic, with the government taking some steps to support people left unemployed or living in poverty. Authorities sought improved protections for women from violence amid rising cases linked to pandemic lockdowns. Authorities fail to ensure adequate reception conditions for migrants and asylum seekers, including in the Canary Islands and Melilla. Migrant agricultural workers experience unsanitary living conditions and labor exploitation. Officials and activists in Catalonia face prosecutions linked to the disputed 2017 independence referendum. The prosecution of musicians on overbroad criminal charges of glorifying terrorism and insulting the monarchy interfered with freedom of expression.

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