For over a decade, Human Rights Watch documented atrocities committed by former rebel leader and one-time Congolese army general Bosco Ntaganda and troops under his command in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Sought by the International Criminal Court since 2006, Ntaganda surrendered in 2013, and his trial in The Hague started in 2015. In 2019, following conviction, he was sentenced to 30 years in prison for 13 counts of war crimes and 5 counts of crimes against humanity committed in the former Ituri district in 2002 and 2003. The charges included murder and attempted murder, rape, sexual slavery, attacking civilians, pillaging, displacement of civilians, attacking protected objects, and recruiting and using child soldiers. Appeal proceedings are ongoing.

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